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[protege-discussion] Reasoning an ontology: jess bridge limitations

Samson Tu swt at
Tue May 10 18:02:10 PDT 2011

I think Jess is choking on the "~" in

LearningObject ( name ~

I think you just need to quote the string.


On 5/3/2011 12:46 AM, Nada Bajnaid wrote:
> Hello
> I'm building API as part of my PhD. When I try to infer the jess bridge
> I got the following error
> Jess reported an error in routine Jesp.parseFact.Message: Expected ')'
> at token '~'.
> when I try to run the jess tab at the SWRL-tab in protege I got the
> follwoing warrning:
> A significant limitation of the current bridge is that it does not
> represent all OWL
> axioms when transferring knowledge from an OWL ontology to Jess. The
> exceptions are the basic
> class, property and individual axioms, such as, for example,
> rdfs:subClassOf and rdfs:subPropertyOf, and
> OWL axioms owl:sameAs, owl:differentFrom, owl:allDifferent,
> owl:equivalentClass, and owl:equivalentProperty.
> As a result, the Jess inferencing mechanisms do not know about the
> remaining OWL axioms.
> To ensure consistency, a reasoner should be run on an OWL knowledge base
> before SWRL rules and OWL
> knowledge are transferred to Jess. Also, if inferred knowledge from Jess
> is inserted back into an OWL
> ontology, a reasoner should again be executed to ensure that the new
> knowledge does not
> conflict with OWL axioms in that knowledge base.
> cf.
> more
> details.
> Exception importing SWRL rules and OWL knowledge:
> edu.stanford.smi.protegex.owl.swrl.bridge.exceptions.SWRLBuiltInBridgeException:
> error exporting OWL axiom
> edu.stanford.smi.protegex.owl.swrl.bridge.impl.OWLDeclarationAxiomImpl at c50e46
> <mailto:edu.stanford.smi.protegex.owl.swrl.bridge.impl.OWLDeclarationAxiomImpl at c50e46>:
> Jess reported an error in routine Jesp.parseFact.
> Message: Expected ')' at token '~'.
> Program text: ( assert ( LearningObject ( name ~
> at line 1 in file <eval pipe>.
> Anu idea on how this can be fixed? Shall I use another easoner (ex:
> Racer, Pellet) if so what is the best and if I use it do I still need to
> use a jess bridge in my code?
> Please advise me as I spent a lot of time searching and trying but could
> not fix it
> Thanks in advance
> Nada
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