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[protege-discussion] Reasoning an ontology: jess bridge limitations

Nada Bajnaid nbajnaid at
Wed May 11 01:21:32 PDT 2011

Dear Samson, Timothy
Thanks for your reply. I changed the name but still can not get inferred knowledge in my java code I tried using Jess bridge, creating protegeOWLReasoner but non works. I returned back to my ontology and try the Jess tab when I press OWL + SWRL -> Jess
SWRL rule and relevant OWL knowledge successfully converted to Jess knowledge.
Number of SWRL rules exported to Jess: 9
Number of OWL classes exported to Jess: 58
Number of OWL individuals exported to Jess: 130
Number of OWL axioms exported to Jess: 69
Look at the "Jess Rules" tab for the Jess rules.
Look at the "Imported Jess Classes" tab for the Jess class definitions.
Look at the "Imported Jess Properties" tab for the Jess property assertions.
Look at the "Imported Jess Individuals" tab for the Jess individual assertions.

Press the "Run Jess" button to run the Jess rule engine.
Succesful execution of rule engine.
Number of inferred axioms: 0
Look at the "Inferred Axioms" tab to see the inferred axioms.
Press the "Jess->OWL" button to translate the asserted facts to OWL knowledge.
I attached my owl file it is a simple Software Quality Assurance ontology for learning. Each concept is mapped to a learning object and running the rule engine should creates other RelatedLearningObjects which never happened?!. Would you please check if I did anything wrong
I really appreciate your help

--- On Tue, 5/10/11, Samson Tu <swt at> wrote:

From: Samson Tu <swt at>
Subject: Re: [protege-discussion] Reasoning an ontology: Jess bridge limitations
To: protege-discussion at
Date: Tuesday, May 10, 2011, 8:02 PM

I think Jess is choking on the "~" in

LearningObject ( name ~

I think you just need to quote the string.


On 5/3/2011 12:46 AM, Nada Bajnaid wrote:
> Hello
> I'm building API as part of my PhD. When I try to infer the jess bridge
> I got the following error
> Jess reported an error in routine Jesp.parseFact.Message: Expected ')'
> at token '~'.
> when I try to run the jess tab at the SWRL-tab in protege I got the
> follwoing warrning:
> A significant limitation of the current bridge is that it does not
> represent all OWL
> axioms when transferring knowledge from an OWL ontology to Jess. The
> exceptions are the basic
> class, property and individual axioms, such as, for example,
> rdfs:subClassOf and rdfs:subPropertyOf, and
> OWL axioms owl:sameAs, owl:differentFrom, owl:allDifferent,
> owl:equivalentClass, and owl:equivalentProperty.
> As a result, the Jess inferencing mechanisms do not know about the
> remaining OWL axioms.
> To ensure consistency, a reasoner should be run on an OWL knowledge base
> before SWRL rules and OWL
> knowledge are transferred to Jess. Also, if inferred knowledge from Jess
> is inserted back into an OWL
> ontology, a reasoner should again be executed to ensure that the new
> knowledge does not
> conflict with OWL axioms in that knowledge base.
> cf.
> more
> details.
> Exception importing SWRL rules and OWL knowledge:
> edu.stanford.smi.protegex.owl.swrl.bridge.exceptions.SWRLBuiltInBridgeException:
> error exporting OWL axiom
> edu.stanford.smi.protegex.owl.swrl.bridge.impl.OWLDeclarationAxiomImpl at c50e46
> <mailto:edu.stanford.smi.protegex.owl.swrl.bridge.impl.OWLDeclarationAxiomImpl at c50e46>:
> Jess reported an error in routine Jesp.parseFact.
> Message: Expected ')' at token '~'.
> Program text: ( assert ( LearningObject ( name ~
> at line 1 in file <eval pipe>.
> Anu idea on how this can be fixed? Shall I use another easoner (ex:
> Racer, Pellet) if so what is the best and if I use it do I still need to
> use a jess bridge in my code?
> Please advise me as I spent a lot of time searching and trying but could
> not fix it
> Thanks in advance
> Nada
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