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# [protege-owl] How to encode the logical OR in SWRL?!

Martin O'Connor martin.oconnor at stanford.edu
Thu Dec 6 09:12:25 PST 2007

```What does 'all possible relations between two individuals' mean? Do you
have a concrete example with meaningful class and property names?

Martin

ahmed nabel wrote:

>Sorry for may be being not clear.
>
>What I want to do is:
>
>hasProperty(a, b) ^
>hasAnotherProperty(a, c) ->
>hasProperty(b, c)
>OR hasSomeOtherProperty(b, c)
>
>So its basically finding ALL the possible relations between 2 individuals based on the knowledge of their relations to another third common individual (all that is in OWL).
>
>The replies I have got so far were very useful. I'm still, however, looking for a way to solve this.
>
>Thank you.
>
>
>----------------------------------------
>
>
>>From: tar at ISI.EDU
>>Date: Thu, 6 Dec 2007 06:26:40 -0800
>>To: protege-owl at lists.stanford.edu
>>Subject: Re: [protege-owl] How to encode the logical OR in SWRL?!
>>
>>
>>On Dec 6, 2007, at 3:05 AM, ahmed nabel wrote:
>>
>>
>>
>>>Thank you very much Martin and all.
>>>
>>>1. Is there anytime lines for SQWRL? Should we expect it soon or not?
>>>
>>>2. I have done  more research and found that another suggestion is
>>>the Jess. I wonder how useful is that? In other words, can rules be
>>>written in Jess support disjunction in rule like:
>>>
>>>A AND B -> C OR D
>>>
>>>
>>Well, if C and D are classes,  you can get this effect by defining a
>>new class
>>
>>    E == union C, D
>>
>>and then writing the rule
>>
>>   A and B ->  E
>>
>>if this is about properties, then you are not able to do it.
>>
>>A more fundamental question, though, is what reasoning benefit do you
>>wish to get from this?  How does know (C or D) help you get any
>>further in your task, especially since you won't know which of C or D
>>actually holds.  That will stop things from chaining any further.
>>There are very few logic reasoners at all (and of, course, none for
>>OWL) that are able to do a reasoning by cases and infer anything from
>>a disjunction.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>>and run that over and OWL ontology?
>>>
>>>Thank you.
>>>
>>>Best.
>>>
>>>Ahmed.
>>>
>>>----------------------------------------
>>>
>>>
>>>>Date: Wed, 5 Dec 2007 17:41:19 -0800
>>>>From: martin.oconnor at stanford.edu
>>>>To: protege-owl at lists.stanford.edu
>>>>Subject: Re: [protege-owl] How to encode the logical OR in SWRL?!
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>The SWRL Specification does not allow disjunction in rule
>>>>consequents so
>>>>it is unlikely to be supported by any tool.
>>>>
>>>>Martin
>>>>
>>>>ahmed nabel wrote:
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>>Actually, this is what I really need to do. A disjunction in the
>>>>>consequent.
>>>>>
>>>>>I wonder if I use Protege 4 change anything...?
>>>>>
>>>>>Thank you.
>>>>>
>>>>>----------------------------------------
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>>From: tar at ISI.EDU
>>>>>>Date: Wed, 5 Dec 2007 10:44:05 -0800
>>>>>>To: protege-owl at lists.stanford.edu
>>>>>>Subject: Re: [protege-owl] How to encode the logical OR in SWRL?!
>>>>>>
>>>>>>
>>>>>>On Dec 4, 2007, at 5:38 AM, ahmed nabel wrote:
>>>>>>
>>>>>>
>>>>>>
>>>>>>
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>I could not find out how to write a rule as:
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>hasProperty (?x) or hasAnotherProperty (?x) then
>>>>>>>hasThisProperty (?x)
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>The problem is in the "or" thing... I could not find out how to
>>>>>>>encode that in SWRL...?
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>You can get the same effect as disjunctions in the antecedent by
>>>>>>just
>>>>>>writing multiple rules:
>>>>>>
>>>>>>  hasProperty(?x)  =>  hasThisProperty(?x)
>>>>>>
>>>>>>  hasAnotherProperty(?x) => hasThisProperty(?x)
>>>>>>
>>>>>>Since the rules are applied independently, this has the same
>>>>>>semantics as the disjnuction.
>>>>>>
>>>>>>What you CAN'T do is get disjunctions in the consequent.
>>>>>>
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>>>>>>
>>>>>>
>>>>>>
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```