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[protege-owl] Inheritance?

Thomas Schneider schneidt at
Fri Jan 15 01:08:32 PST 2010

On 14 Jan 2010, at 19:59, Thomas Russ wrote:

> I don't normally use Protege 4, so I'm not the best person to answer  
> some of these.
> On Jan 14, 2010, at 3:09 AM, Poovendran Moodley wrote:
>>> As a simple example, if you define a class
>>>  50-year-old  ==  Person and (hasValue age 50)
>> I wasn't sure if age should be an object or data property. So I  
>> tried both: as a data property, Bill was inferred as a 50-year-old,  
>> where the class 50-year-old has the equivalence class "Person and  
>> (age value 50)." However, Fred was not inferred to have the data  
>> property of age being 50 (though Fred, of course was inferred to be  
>> a Person since 50-year-old is-a Person).
> I'm not sure where you would have to look to find inferred datatype  
> property values using Protege 4.0, but I would expect them to be  
> available somewhere.

Hmm, this is a bit tricky: since most datatypes are infinite, a GUI  
that displays inferred datatype values of individuals would have to  
handle an infinite search space. However, if you specify the value  
you're after, the DL query tab of Protégé 4 will give you the required  
answer. Specify the class expression "age value 50" as the query, tick  
the box "Individual", and hit "Execute". The answers under "Instances"  
will include Fred.



>>> You can then make the following assertions:
>>>  Fred  type  50-year-old
>>>  Bill  type Person
>>>  Bill  age 50
>>> Bill will be recognized as belonging to the class "50-year-old".   
>>> Fred will have an inferred property value for "age" of 50.
>>> Where the difference becomes apparent and will diverge from what  
>>> you might get from an object-oriented perspective is if you use  
>>> some of the other restrictions.  Most interesting would be, for  
>>> example the "allValuesFrom" or the "minCardinality" restrictions.
>>> In Protege 4, the class expression editor doesn't support the  
>>> keywords allValuesFrom or minCardinality. I think I managed to try  
>>> out using allValuesFrom but I'm not sure how to express  
>>> minCardinality.
> I think Protege 4 normally uses the more abbreviated Manchester  
> syntax.  In that case
>   allValuesFrom = only
>   minCardinality = min
> There is a nice summary table at
>>> If you were to define
>>>  A  == B and (allValuesFrom P 50-year-old)
>> I used that class A has the equivalence class: B and (P only 50- 
>> year-old). Indeed, i-2 was inferred to be of type 50-year-old. It  
>> didn't gain the data property age 50 but if I used the other  
>> 50YearOld class in the equivalence class (described above) then i-2  
>> did get the "hasValue 50" object property inference as expected.
> Sounds like the same issue as above.
>>> and then assert
>>>  i-1  type  A
>>>  i-1  P  i-2
>>> then the inference engine will conclude that i-2 must be of type  
>>> 50-year-old, and that information will be available for further  
>>> reasoning.  In particular, the reasoner will figure out that the  
>>> age of i-2 must be 50.
>>> Instead, if you were to define
>>>  X = Y and (minCardinality P 3)
>> I suspected that the keyword only could mean allValuesFrom, and it  
>> seemed to work as such. I suspect that the keyword min means  
>> minCardinality but I'm unable to construct a valid expression in  
>> Protege. I'd love to know how it's done :D
> Correct on the keyword correspondences.  I think the form you need  
> is "P min 3".
>> and then assert
>> i-3 type X
>> then the reasoner will conclude that i-3 has at least 3 values for  
>> property P, but it won't be able to tell you which ones they are.   
>> This is where open world reasoning comes into play.  Even though  
>> there are 3 fillers, they don't have to be specifically  
>> identified.  OWL is quite able to reason with just this partial  
>> information.
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|  Dr Thomas Schneider                    schneider (at)  |
|  School of Computer Science  |
|  Kilburn Building, Room 2.114                 phone +44 161 2756136  |
|  University of Manchester                                            |
|  Oxford Road                                             _///_       |
|  Manchester M13 9PL                                      (o~o)       |

Jubones (pl.n.)
   Awful things bought in Nairobi which never look good at home.

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