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[protege-owl] Managing Annotation Properties in P4
tar at isi.edu
Mon Nov 29 09:29:01 PST 2010
On Nov 29, 2010, at 12:12 AM, Hammond, Tony wrote:
> Hi Alan:
> Many thanks for that explanation. I kind of wondered.
> So, DC is promoted as a semantic lingua franca on the Web. And yet
> here it seems that Protege has effectively outlawed it and decided
> it cannot be applied to objects of discourse, but can only assume
> the inferior role of "annotating" ontologies. A laudable role
> certainly, but not centre stage.
> Shouldn't the ontology maker be the one to make that call?
Disclaimer: I have no knowledge of the thought processes behind that
decision, but my speculation follows:
Well, part of this may be related to restrictions placed on properties
in OWL 1 DL, where you can apply annotation properties to any type of
object, but the annotation properties have to be disjoint from
datatype and object properties. So to avoid forcing any ontology that
uses DC into being an OWL-Full ontology, there had to be some decision
about which of the disjoint set of properties in OWL-DL to put the DC
properties. I think that annotation properties gives the most
flexibility, even though it does prevent you from defining a class of
items authored by a particular person.
I'm unsure about the need to have annotation properties and object/
datatype properties be disjoint in OWL 2. My quick search didn't find
a definitive statement, but perhaps one of the other commentators can
OWL Full does not put any constraints on annotations in an ontology.
OWL DL allows annotations on classes, properties, individuals and
ontology headers, but only under the following conditions:
• The sets of object properties, datatype properties, annotation
properties and ontology properties must be mutually disjoint. Thus, in
OWL DLdc:creator cannot be at the same time a datatype property and an
• Annotation properties must have an explicit typing triple of the
AnnotationPropertyID rdf:type owl:AnnotationProperty .
• Annotation properties must not be used in property axioms. Thus, in
OWL DL one cannot define subproperties or domain/range constraints for
• The object of an annotation property must be either a data literal,
a URI reference, or an individual.
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